Is the Food Additive, Xanthan Gum Bad for You? - Cape Crystal Brands


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Xanthan gum is a widely used food additive that has garnered attention for its safety and health effects. As a common thickener and stabilizer, it is found in various food and personal care products. But what is xanthan gum exactly, and is it safe for consumption?

Key Takeaways:

  • Xanthan gum¬†is a¬†food additive¬†commonly used as a¬†thickener¬†and¬†stabilizer.
  • The FDA considers it safe for consumption and has not placed any limitations on its use.
  • Xanthan gum may have potential¬†health benefits, such as lowering¬†blood sugar¬†levels and improving bowel regularity.
  • Some individuals may need to avoid or limit their intake of xanthan gum due to¬†allergies¬†or medical conditions.
  • More research is needed to fully understand the impact of xanthan gum on human health.

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What Is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthan gum is a versatile food additive widely used as a thickening, suspending, and stabilizing agent in various products. It is created through the fermentation of sugar by a bacteria called Xanthomonas campestris. Let's explore the characteristics and applications of this popular food additive.

Characteristics of Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is a soluble fiber that is derived from natural sources. It is a polysaccharide, which means it is composed of multiple sugar molecules. The unique properties of xanthan gum allow it to function as an effective thickener and stabilizer in a wide range of food and non-food applications.

Applications of Xanthan Gum

Due to its exceptional thickening and stabilizing properties, xanthan gum is commonly used in the production of various products. Here are some examples:

  • Food Products: It is used in salad dressings, sauces, gravies, dairy products, bakery goods, and gluten-free products.
  • Beverages: Xanthan gum is added to fruit juices, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages to enhance viscosity and improve texture.
  • Personal Care Products: It is utilized in toothpaste, creams, lotions, and shampoo to provide consistency and enhance flow properties.
  • Industrial Applications: Xanthan gum finds applications in¬†industrial products¬†such as paints, adhesives, and cleaners.

While xanthan gum is primarily used as a food additive, its versatile nature makes it suitable for a wide range of other applications.

Benefits of Xanthan Gum as a Food Additive

Xanthan gum offers several benefits as a food additive:

  1. Improved Texture: It imparts a smooth and creamy texture to food products, enhancing their overall mouthfeel.
  2. Enhanced Stability: Xanthan gum helps stabilize emulsions, preventing ingredient separation and improving the shelf life of products.
  3. Gluten-Free Alternative: As a gluten-free ingredient, xanthan gum is widely used in the production of gluten-free food products, providing a similar texture to traditional counterparts.
  4. Reduced Fat Content: It can be used to replace fats in certain recipes, reducing their overall fat content without compromising texture or flavor.

Now that we understand what xanthan gum is and its various applications, let's explore where it can be found in everyday products.

Where Is Xanthan Gum Found?

Xanthan gum is a versatile ingredient that can be found in various products across multiple industries. Let's explore where xanthan gum is commonly used!

Food Products

Xanthan gum is a popular additive in the food industry, thanks to its thickening and stabilizing properties. It can be found in a wide range of food products, including:

  • Salad dressings
  • Bakery products
  • Fruit juices
  • Soups and sauces
  • Ice creams and frozen desserts
  • Gluten-free products

This versatile ingredient helps improve the texture and consistency of these food items, providing a better overall experience for consumers.

Personal Care Products

In addition to its use in the food industry, xanthan gum can also be found in various personal care products. It is commonly used as a thickening agent and stabilizer in products such as:

  • Toothpaste
  • Creams and lotions
  • Shampoo and conditioners

By incorporating xanthan gum into these products, manufacturers can enhance their texture and improve their performance.

Industrial Products

Xanthan gum is not limited to the food and personal care industries. It also finds applications in various industrial products, where its unique properties are highly valued. Some examples of industrial products that may contain xanthan gum include:

  • Fungicides
  • Cleaners
  • Paints
  • Adhesives

In these applications, xanthan gum acts as a thickener, binder, or suspending agent, contributing to the desired characteristics of the final product.

As you can see, xanthan gum is a versatile ingredient used in a wide array of products ranging from food to personal care to industrial goods. Its unique properties make it a valuable component for improving texture, stability, and overall performance. Now that we know where xanthan gum is found, let's delve deeper into its potential health benefits!

Xanthan Gum May Lower Blood Sugar

Consuming xanthan gum in large doses has been found to have potential benefits in lowering blood sugar levels. Several studies have demonstrated this effect, which can be particularly beneficial for individuals with diabetes or those looking to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.

When ingested, xanthan gum forms a gel-like substance in the stomach and small intestine. This gel-like consistency slows down the digestion process, providing a sustained release of sugars into the bloodstream. As a result, blood sugar spikes after meals can be reduced, providing more stable and regulated blood sugar levels.

This effect has been observed in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. For individuals with diabetes, maintaining stable blood sugar levels is crucial for managing the condition and preventing complications. However, even for individuals without diabetes, maintaining stable blood sugar levels is essential for overall health and well-being.

How Does Xanthan Gum Lower Blood Sugar?

The mechanism behind xanthan gum's blood sugar-lowering effect lies in its ability to slow down the digestive process. The gel-like substance formed by xanthan gum delays the emptying of the stomach and reduces the absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine.

By slowing down carbohydrate digestion, xanthan gum helps regulate the release of sugars into the bloodstream. This can prevent the sharp spikes in blood sugar levels that often occur after consuming high-carbohydrate meals or beverages.

Additionally, xanthan gum may also increase satiety, making individuals feel fuller for longer. This can help control appetite and reduce cravings for sugary or high-carbohydrate foods, further contributing to the maintenance of stable blood sugar levels.

Other Health Benefits of Xanthan Gum

In addition to its ability to lower blood sugar levels, xanthan gum offers several other potential health benefits. These include:

  1. Reduced Cholesterol: Studies suggest that xanthan gum may help lower cholesterol levels. It may inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in the intestines, leading to lower levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol.
  2. Weight Loss: Xanthan gum can promote weight loss by increasing feelings of fullness. As a soluble fiber, it absorbs water and expands in the digestive system, helping you feel satisfied and curbing appetite.
  3. Potential Cancer-Fighting Properties: Although more research is needed, some studies indicate that xanthan gum may have cancer-fighting properties. It contains polysaccharides that have shown potential in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells.
  4. Improved Bowel Regularity: Xanthan gum acts as a prebiotic, stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. This can improve digestion and promote regular bowel movements.
  5. Thickening Agent for Swallowing Difficulties: Xanthan gum's gel-like consistency makes it an effective thickening agent for individuals with swallowing difficulties, such as those with dysphagia.

While xanthan gum's health benefits show promise, it is important to note that further research is still needed to fully understand the extent and mechanisms of its effects.



Health Benefit

Reduced Cholesterol Inhibits the absorption of cholesterol in the intestines, potentially leading to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.
Weight Loss Promotes feelings of fullness, aiding in weight loss efforts by curbing appetite.
Potential Cancer-Fighting Properties Contains compounds that have shown potential in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, but more research is needed.
Improved Bowel Regularity Acts as a prebiotic, supporting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut and promoting regular bowel movements.
Thickening Agent for Swallowing Difficulties Gel-like consistency makes it an effective thickening agent for individuals with swallowing difficulties, such as those with dysphagia.


Xanthan Gum Can Cause Digestive Issues

While xanthan gum is generally considered safe, consuming large amounts of it can have a laxative effect and cause digestive issues. This includes increased frequency of bowel movements, softer stools, increased gas, and altered gut bacteria. However, these effects are unlikely to occur unless consuming at least 15 grams of xanthan gum, which is difficult to reach through a typical diet.

Some People May Need to Avoid or Limit Xanthan Gum

While xanthan gum is generally considered safe for consumption, there are certain groups of individuals who should be cautious and either avoid or limit their intake of this food additive.


If you have severe allergies to wheat, corn, soy, or dairy, it's important to be aware that xanthan gum can be derived from these sources. Although rare, allergic reactions to xanthan gum have been reported. It's vital to carefully read ingredient labels of food and personal care products to ensure they do not contain xanthan gum if you have known allergies to any of the aforementioned ingredients.

Premature Infants

Xanthan gum should be avoided in premature infants. There have been documented cases of a serious condition called necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the use of xanthan gum in premature infants. This life-threatening condition affects the intestines and requires immediate medical attention. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical advice and follow the recommendations of healthcare professionals before introducing xanthan gum to premature infants.

Medication Interactions

If you are taking certain medications, it's important to consult with your healthcare provider to determine whether xanthan gum can interact with your medications. Xanthan gum has the potential to lower blood sugar levels, and if you are already taking medications for diabetes or other conditions that lower blood sugar, combining them with xanthan gum may result in excessively low blood sugar levels. It is advisable to closely monitor blood sugar levels and work with your healthcare provider to adjust your medication dosages if necessary.


If you have surgery scheduled, it is advisable to inform your healthcare provider about your consumption of xanthan gum. Xanthan gum has the potential to lower blood sugar levels, and this can be critical during surgical procedures. Doctors may recommend temporarily discontinuing the use of xanthan gum prior to surgery to prevent any potential complications related to blood sugar levels.

In summary, while xanthan gum is generally safe, it is important for individuals with severe allergies, premature infants, those taking certain medications, or individuals planning to have surgery to exercise caution and consult their healthcare providers before consuming xanthan gum.

Is Xanthan Gum Safe to Consume?

For the majority of people, consuming foods that contain xanthan gum is considered safe. The FDA has approved it as a food additive and has not placed any limitations on its use. The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives has assigned it an acceptable daily intake of "not specified," indicating that it has low toxicity and does not pose a health hazard. However, it is important to avoid inhaling xanthan gum, as it can cause respiratory symptoms and irritation.

Safety of Xanthan Gum

To ensure consumer safety, regulatory bodies like the FDA evaluate food additives such as xanthan gum. The FDA reviews scientific data to assess the safety of substances used in food products and determines their acceptable levels of consumption. Xanthan gum has undergone extensive testing and has been deemed safe for use in food products.

The FDA has not identified any specific risks or safety concerns associated with xanthan gum consumption. It has not placed any restrictions or limitations on its use in food products, reaffirming its safety profile for the general population.

However, it's important to note that individuals who have respiratory conditions or sensitivities should take precautions when handling xanthan gum powder. Inhaling the powder may cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath. Therefore, it is advised to avoid direct inhalation of xanthan gum and ensure proper ventilation when using it in industrial settings.

Regulatory Approval of Xanthan Gum

The approval of xanthan gum as a food additive by regulatory authorities, such as the FDA, demonstrates its safety and compliance with established standards. The FDA conducts thorough evaluations of food additives to assess their potential health effects and determine whether they meet the necessary safety criteria.

The regulatory approval process involves reviewing scientific evidence, conducting safety assessments, and establishing acceptable daily intake levels for the additive. Xanthan gum has successfully undergone this rigorous approval process, gaining recognition as a safe food additive.

Regulatory Authority Approval Status
FDA Approved
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Approved
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) Approved

Xanthan Gum Safety Data

The safety of xanthan gum is supported by scientific research and extensive toxicological studies. These studies have examined various aspects, including acute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity.

Based on the available data, xanthan gum has consistently demonstrated low toxicity levels and no significant adverse effects on human health. The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives has assigned it an acceptable daily intake of "not specified," indicating that it does not pose a health risk even at higher levels of consumption.

The Impact of Xanthan Gum on the Gut Microbiome

Recent research suggests that widespread consumption of xanthan gum may impact the gut microbiome. The substance is fermented by specific bacteria in the gut, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids that can benefit intestinal health.

When xanthan gum is consumed, it interacts with the bacteria in the gut, undergoing a fermentation process. This fermentation produces short-chain fatty acids such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate. These compounds play a crucial role in the maintenance of a healthy gut environment and have been linked to benefits such as reducing inflammation, improving digestion, and supporting overall gut health.

The presence of xanthan gum in the gut also provides a substrate for the growth of specific bacteria strains that specialize in fermenting the substance. These bacteria use xanthan gum as a food source, contributing to the production of short-chain fatty acids.

However, it is important to note that the overall impact of xanthan gum on the gut microbiome is still not fully understood. While some studies suggest potential benefits, others highlight potential concerns. More research is needed to determine whether these changes induced by xanthan gum are positive, negative, or have no significant impact on gut health.

Further investigation should explore factors such as dosage, duration of consumption, and individual variations in response to better understand how xanthan gum affects the delicate balance of the gut microbiome. By gaining more insight into the specific bacteria involved in the fermentation process and the resulting metabolites, researchers can obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the potential impact on gut health.

The current body of research provides a foundation for understanding the potential influence of xanthan gum on the gut microbiome. By exploring the interplay between this food additive and the complex ecosystem of the gut, scientists can further our knowledge of the relationship between xanthan gum, bacteria, fermentation, and the overall health of the gastrointestinal system.

Re-Evaluation of Xanthan Gum as a Food Additive

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has conducted a comprehensive safety re-evaluation of xanthan gum as a food additive. This evaluation aimed to assess the potential risks associated with its consumption and determine its overall safety for the general population.

Based on the available exposure and toxicity data, the EFSA concluded that there is no safety concern for the general population at the current levels of xanthan gum consumption. This means that the use of xanthan gum as a food additive, within the approved limits, is considered safe for normal consumption.

However, the EFSA highlighted the need for specific risk assessments in certain population groups. Infants under the age of 12 weeks require further evaluation due to their vulnerability and unique nutritional requirements. Additionally, individuals consuming above-average amounts of xanthan gum, such as those with celiac disease or following gluten-free diets, should be subjected to specific risk assessments to ensure their safety.

It is important to note that the EFSA's safety re-evaluation focused on the general population and not individuals with specific health conditions or sensitivities. If you have any concerns or specific dietary requirements, it is always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian.

Safety Re-Evaluation of Xanthan Gum: Summary

Population Group Safety Conclusion
General Population No safety concern at current consumption levels*
Infants under 12 weeks Specific risk assessment required
Celiac disease or gluten-free diets Specific risk assessment required

*Within the approved limits

It is crucial to continue monitoring and evaluating the safety of food additives to ensure public health and well-being. Ongoing research and regulatory assessments provide valuable insights into the potential risks and benefits associated with food additives like xanthan gum.



Xanthan gum, a widely used food additive, plays a crucial role as a thickener and stabilizer in various products. Although there have been concerns about its potential digestive and respiratory effects, the FDA affirms that xanthan gum is safe for consumption. In fact, this versatile additive may even offer some health benefits, like aiding in blood sugar regulation and promoting improved bowel regularity.

Nevertheless, it's important to note that certain individuals may need to exercise caution when it comes to consuming xanthan gum. Allergies, underlying medical conditions, and interactions with specific medications may necessitate avoiding or limiting its intake. As we continue to delve deeper into the subject, further research is required to gain a comprehensive understanding of how xanthan gum can impact human health.

In conclusion, xanthan gum remains a prevalent and accepted food additive. While it is generally deemed safe, individuals should be mindful of their unique circumstances and consult with healthcare professionals if necessary. With ongoing scientific investigations, we can enhance our knowledge and make informed choices regarding the consumption of xanthan gum as a food additive.


Is xanthan gum bad for you?

While xanthan gum has been linked to respiratory and digestive problems, the FDA considers it safe for consumption when used in moderation.

What is xanthan gum?

Xanthan gum is a food additive commonly used as a thickener and stabilizer in various products.

Where is xanthan gum found?

Xanthan gum can be found in a wide range of food products, personal care products, and industrial products.

Can xanthan gum lower blood sugar?

Studies have shown that consuming xanthan gum in large doses can help lower blood sugar levels.

What are the other health benefits of xanthan gum?

Xanthan gum may have other health benefits, including reducing cholesterol levels, promoting weight loss, and potentially having cancer-fighting properties.

Can xanthan gum cause digestive issues?

Consuming large amounts of xanthan gum can have a laxative effect and cause digestive issues.

Who should avoid or limit their consumption of xanthan gum?

Individuals with severe allergies, premature infants, those taking certain medications, or planning to have surgery should be cautious with xanthan gum.

Is xanthan gum safe to consume?

Xanthan gum is considered safe for consumption by the FDA when used in appropriate amounts.

What is the impact of xanthan gum on the gut microbiome?

Xanthan gum can affect the gut microbiome through fermentation by specific bacteria, but more research is needed to fully understand its effects.

Has xanthan gum been re-evaluated as a food additive?

The safety of xanthan gum has been re-evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority, which concluded that there is no safety concern for the general population at current consumption levels.

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About the Editor

About the Chef Edmund: Chef Edmund is the Founder of¬†Cape Crystal Brands¬†and EnvironMolds. He is the author of several non-fiction ‚ÄúHow-to‚ÄĚ books, past publisher of the ArtMolds Journal Magazine and six cookbooks available for download on this site. He lives and breathes his food blogs as both writer and editor. You can follow him on¬†Twitter¬†and¬†Linkedin.

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